Monday, 21 April 2014

recognise anything?

Perfectionism is characterized by striving for flawlessness and setting of excessively high standards for performance accompanied by tendencies for overly critical evaluations of one’s behavior (Flett & Hewitt, 2002).Moreover perfectionism explained as setting goals that are out of range and as a structure in which it causes theperson to experience negative feelings as a consequence (Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990). Earlyconceptualizations of perfectionism suggested perfectionism to be a unidimensional construct (Burns, 1980). Incontrast, recent views have stressed that perfectionism is multidimensional in nature (Terry- Short, Owens, Slade & Dewey, 1995). Recent research has shown that two major dimensions of perfectionism can be differentiated: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns (Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia & Neubauer, 1993; Stoeber & Otto, 2006). The dimension of perfectionistic strivings captures those facets of perfectionism that relate toperfectionistic personal standards and a self oriented striving for perfection. This dimension was found to beassociated with positive characteristics, processes, and outcomes such as conscientiousness, adaptive coping, andpositive affect and also higher levels of subjective well-being and psychological adjustment (Stoeber & Childs, 2010).In contrast, the dimension of perfectionistic concerns comprises those facets of perfectionism that are consideredneurotic, unhealthy, or maladaptive such as concern over mistakes and doubts about actions (Stoeber & Rennert, 2008). People with dysfunctional perfectionism are likely to avoid situations that may require the person to try tomeet his or her perfectionist standards; for example, procrastination (putting off starting a task because the desire tocomplete it perfectly will make it hard or unpleasant and prematurely ending tasks because perfectionist standardsare unlikely to be met (Shafran & Mansell, 2001). The recent studies suggest that the majority of perfectionists seetheir work as the domain most affected by their perfectionism, but other domains can be affected as well, mostnotably relationships (Stoeber & Stoeber, 2009).Every person procrastinates in carrying out some of the responsibilities and tasks in their life. Some delaypayments or appointments while some others delay housework, assignments, homework or preparing forexaminations. Such procrastinated behaviors affect the individuals in such ways as restless nights, high level of stress, regret, and panic, withdrawal due to the lack of time or unsatisfactory fulfillment. Then people promisethemselves not to delay things until the last minute but it happens again (Kagan, Cakir, Ilhan & Kandemir, 2010). The term procrastinate comes from the Latin word procrastinate and means to putt off, delay, prolong, defer, stall,or postpone performing a task. Procrastinating implies performing an alternative activity to the one intended, whichis not synonymous with idleness (Schouwenburg, 2004). Procrastination can be temporary or permanent and can bedefined as a function of the behavioral output- putting off the action- or the cognitive output- putting off making adecision (Rosario, Costa, Nunez, Pienda, Solano & Valle, 2009).

full article can be found here.